Carpal Tunnel Syndrome:

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) is caused by a nerve injury located in the wrists of the arm. Symptoms include tingling, numbness, and pain in the fingers and wrist. The numbness and tingling involves the thumb, 2nd and 3rd fingers. The patient may complain of whole hand numbness. It is not uncommon to have pain in the upper arm and shoulder. Symptoms are often worse at night and may be relieved by shaking the hand. Common daily tasks may be harder due to the symptoms of CTS.

The carpal tunnel is an actual anatomical space in our wrist. It’s a narrow tunnel in the wrist formed by bone and ligaments; this tunnel allows tendons and the median nerve to pass from the forearm into the hand. When CTS occurs the tendons, which pass through this tunnel, begin to thicken and will push on the median nerve. This nerve compression causes the symptoms of CTS. If untreated CTS may progress and symptoms may become worse over time.

Treatment can include wearing wrist splints at night, cortisone injections into the wrist, and/or surgery. There are also some common preventative tips which you can follow to help minimize the effect of CTS on your wrist. Some of these include keeping your wrist in a neutral position (not bent), grasping items with the whole hand not just fingers, resting the wrist, and conditioning exercises.

The information used to compile this article was resourced from the websites listed below. For more information on this topic please reference these sources.

http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=a00005

http://www.rheumatology.org/practice/clinical/patients/diseases_and_conditions/carpaltunnel.asp

Cubital Tunnel Syndrome:

Cubital tunnel syndrome is a condition in which a major nerve (the ulnar nerve) is injured at the elbow. The cubital tunnel is a groove formed by bone in your elbow, the ulnar nerve passes through this groove from your upper arm down to your fingers. Bending the elbow compresses this nerve as it passes through. Over time this can cause nerve inflammation and irritation. Symptoms of cubital tunnel are numbness, tingling, and pain in the ring and little finger, loss of hand strength, and sharp pain when the elbow is touched. To help prevent cubital tunnel syndrome you should avoid leaning on your elbow and bending your elbow for a prolonged period of time.

Peripheral Neuropathy:

Peripheral neuropathy is a very common disorder. It is estimated that 20 million Americans may suffer from it. It can occur at any age however it is most common among older adults. Unfortunately peripheral neuropathy is not fully understood in today’s medical community. It is apt to be misdiagnosed. And while it has always been present, it has not received adequate attention in the world of medical research.
There are many different causes of neuropathy. About 30% of neuropathies are idiopathic, or their cause is unknown. In another 30% of the cases the neuropathy is related to diabetes. Other causes include autoimmune disease, tumors, heredity, nutritional imbalances, infections, or toxins. Some cases even develop as a result of certain cancer treatments. For this educational material we will focus mainly on polyneuropathy.

What is it?

Neuropathy is a condition in which the peripheral nerves are damaged or not working correctly. A polyneuropathy is a neuropathy which initially begins in the feet and may progress to involve the entire feet, calves, and fingers/hands. The types of nerves affected can vary. If motor neurons are affected, occurs less commonly, you will experience weakness in affected muscles. If sensory nerves are affected you will experience symptoms of numbness, tingling, and even sometimes a painful burning sensation in the affected areas. Sometimes unpleasant, abnormal sensations can occur when the affected area is touched. Often patients will describe a feeling of having socks or gloves on when their feet and hands are bare, this is referred to as stocking and glove pattern neuropathy. Proprioception, or sense of position, of your feet can eventually become impaired. This can lead to difficulty in walking and balance concerns. Patients may find that they widen their stance or drag their feet when walking. Patients are particularly off balance in low light environments.
Symptoms can present in several different patterns they may come and go intermittently, slowly progress over time, or may quickly become severe and debilitating. In all cases early diagnosis and treatment is desired to avoid the possibility of permanent damage occurring to your nerves.

Diagnosis:

Diagnosis of neuropathy is accomplished by taking a thorough medical history and description of your current symptoms. A full neurological exam can also assist the physician in diagnosing your neuropathy. In some cases diagnostic testing such as an electromyogram will be needed to help in diagnosis.

Treatment:

An experienced neurologist can help you manage your neuropathy; decreasing your symptoms and improving your quality of life. It is very important to seek council from a trained specialist as soon as you can. The sooner your neuropathy is treated the better chance you have of avoiding permanent damage to your nerves.
Treatment for the particular neuropathy depends on the root cause of the neuropathy. Treat the cause and often the symptoms of neuropathy will decrease and possibly even be cured. Unfortunately a large portion of polyneuropathy cases are idiopathic which makes it difficult to treat the underlying cause. In these cases symptomatic treatment is used.

Often medications are used to help manage the symptoms of neuropathy. Be advised that it may take time to find the right medication, or combination of medications, to handle your particular case. Physical therapy, anodyne treatment, and referral to podiatry all may be ordered as a part of your specific therapy program.
It is very important for polyneuropathy patients to be aware of their lack of foot sensation. This absence of sensation can be very dangerous; because it will mask pain (which normally acts as a warning sign for injury or infection). A patient may not notice cuts or even a fracture in their foot. Therefore cuts may become infected; and fractures are less likely to be properly treated leading to deformity and possible function impairment. A patient with polyneuropathy should inspect their feet on a regular basis for any concerns. Seeing your doctor for regular foot care, nail and callous trimmings and foot inspection, is also recommended. Wearing proper foot wear can also prevent against possible injury to your feet.

It is important to remember that research is ongoing in the field of neuropathies. This means that new methods of treatment are being developed which might help in the management of your case. New possible causes may also be discovered; which might allow previously idiopathic cases to be newly classified as having a specific cause. Regularly seeing a neurologist can keep you updated on all new advancements in this field, and undoubtedly will improve the treatment and management of your neuropathy.
The information used to compile this article was resourced from the website listed below.

For more information on this topic please reference this source.

http://www.neuropathy.org/site/PageServer